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Arabian American Center October Training & Development
Program Title:
Corrosion Control
Location:
Cairo
Date:
14.10.2018 - 18.10.2018
Fees:
$ 2750

Description

Course Description

     The practical value of corrosion countermeasures, no matter how perfect they may be in the theoretical or laboratory sense, depends upon certain knowledge and attitudes on the part of foremen, well tenders, and individuals with related responsibilities.

       

    This course is directed at field operating personnel, in the hope that steady use will enhance the knowledge and attitudes mentioned, specifically:

                • Appreciation of the enormous cost of oil and gas field corrosion.

                • Ability to recognize early indications of corrosion.

                • Awareness of the importance of early reporting.

                • Desire to take effective part in the solution.

    

     The course makes full use of the simplest possible terms and descriptions.

     The control measures it describes are only typical, and should be automatically accepted as the best solution for any specific problem. The circumstances of corrosion vary widely, and technical advice should always be sought when causes are obscure, or cost or severity is high.

 

Course Objectives

         Upon completion of this course, participants will gain an understanding of corrosion ramifications

               in oil and Gas industries and how to:

               • Describe the different HC streams (HP, LP, CRU lean gas, CRU 1st Stage, X manifolds, export

                       gas, customer networks, etc.)

               • Describe corrosion mechanism and chemical reactions.

               • Interpret corrosion theory. Describe effect of Bacteria on oil, water and gas piping and

                     equipment. Describe corrosion mechanism and chemical reactions.

               • Describe corrosion prevention/ control techniques.

               • Differentiate between corrosion due to dissolved oxygen, microbiological, CO2, H2S, etc.,

               • Evaluate Corrosion inhibitors used in oil and gas industries, their specs and work mechanism.

               • To present the advanced corrosion monitoring technologies.

               • Corrosion Testing methods

               • Describe Bacteria formation and effect

               • To illustrate study cases pertaining to corrosion failures, mainly pipelines, storage tanks,

                       pressure vessels, boilers and heat exchangers.

               • To illustrate study of water tests and its related issues with corrosion and corrosion control.

               • Analyze corrosion coupons, corrosion rigs, corrosion probes, etc., and suggest remedial

                      measures for causes of corrosion

                • Lab Technicians and junior engineers

 

Target Audience

               • Prepared specially for Lab Technicians, Inspection and corrosion engineers

               • Process engineers

               • Refinery chemists

               • Chemical engineers

               • Environmental specialists

               • Mechanical engineers

               • Upstream and downstream

 

Daily Course Plan & Contents:

      Day 1  

          Corrosion Basics; Corrosion in different HC streams (HP, LP, CRU lean gas, CRU 1st Stage, X manifolds, export gas, customer networks, etc.) .

              1. Introduction to Gas and Oilfield Corrosion Control

                                 • Basic Concepts in Corrosion

                                                 - Introduction

                                                 - Corrosion & Society

                                                 - Corrosion: what it is, Corrosion: its economic, social, political and

                                                          environmental impacts,

                                                 - How to avoid liabilities due to corrosion,

                                                 - Lessons of history.

 

                                 • Basic concepts relevant to corrosion

                                                 - Terminology and convention,

                                                 - Primer in chemistry and electrochemistry,

                                                 - Potential-pH diagram,

                                                 - Kinetics of corrosion,

                                                 - High temperature oxidation

 

              2. Chemistry and Basics of Corrosion    

                                 • Electrochemistry of Corrosion,     

                                                 - Electrochemical Reactions,

                                                 - Electrolyte Conductivity,

                                                 - Faraday’s Law of Electrolysis,

                                                 - Electrode Potentials and Current,

 

                                 • Corrosion Rate Expressions,

                                 • pH,  

                                 • Passivity,

                                                 - Potential-pH (Pourbaix) Diagrams,

 

              3. Corrosive Environments

                                 • External Environments,

                                                 - Atmospheric Corrosion,

                                                 - Water as a Corrosive Environment,

                                                 - Soils as Corrosive Environments,

                                                 - Corrosion under Insulation,

 

                                 • Internal Environments,

                                                 - Crude Oil,

                                                 - Natural Gas,

                                                 - Oxygen,

                                                 - CO2,

                                                 - H2S,

                                                 - Organic Acids,

                                                 - Scale,

                                                 - Microbially Influenced Corrosion (MIC),

                                                 - Mercury,

                                                 - Hydrates,

                                                 - Fluid Flow Effects on Corrosion,

 

              4. Forms of Corrosion

                                 • Introduction,

                                 • General Corrosion,

                                 • Galvanic Corrosion,

                                                 - Galvanic Coupling of Two or More Metals,

                                                 - Area Ratio,

                                                 - Polarity Reversal,

                                                 - Conductivity of the Electrolyte,

                                                 - Control of Galvanic Corrosion,

 

                                 • Pitting Corrosion,

                                                 - Occluded Cell Corrosion,

                                                 - Pitting Corrosion Geometry and Stress Concentration,

                                                 - Pitting Initiation,

                                                 - Pitting Resistance Equivalent Numbers (PRENs),

                                                 - Statistics,

                                                 - Prevention of Pitting Corrosion,

 

                                 • Crevice Corrosion,

                                                 - Alloy Selection,

                                                 - Filiform Corrosion,

 

                                 • Intergranular Corrosion,

                                                 - Stainless Steels,

                                                 - Corrosion Parallel to Forming Directions,

                                                 - Aluminum,

                                                 - Other Alloys,

 

                                 • Dealloying,

                                                  -  Mechanism,

                                                 - Selective Phase Attack,

                                                 - Susceptible Alloys,

                                                 - Control,

 

                                 • Erosion Corrosion,

                                                  - Mechanism,

                                                 - Velocity Effects,

                                                 - Materials,

                                                 - Cavitation,

                                                 - Areas of Concern,

                                                 - Control,

 

                                 • Environmentally Induced Cracking,

                                                 - SCC,

                                                 - HE and H2S-Related Cracking,

                                                 - Hydrogen Attack,

                                                 - Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME),

                                                 - Corrosion Fatigue,

 

       Day 2

           Differentiate between corrosion due to dissolved oxygen, microbiological, CO2 H2S, etc.

              5. Other Forms of Corrosion Important to Oilfield Operations,

                                                 - Oxygen Attack,

                                                 - Sweet Corrosion,

                                                 - Sour Corrosion,

                                                 - Mesa Corrosion,

                                                 - Top-of-the-Line (TOL) Corrosion,

                                                 - Wire Line Corrosion,

                                                 - Additional Forms of Corrosion Found in Oil and

                                                 - Gas Operations,

                                                 - Additional Comments,

 

              6. Materials

                                 • Metallurgy Fundamentals,

                                                 - Crystal Structure,

                                                 - Strengthening Methods,

                                                 - Mechanical Properties,

                                                 - Fracture,

                                                 - Creep,

                                                 - Thermal Expansion,

 

                                 • Forming Methods,

                                                 - Wrought versus Cast Structures,

                                                 - Welding,

 

                                 • Materials Specifications,

                                                 - API,

                                                 - AISI—The American Iron and Steel Institute,

                                                 - ASTM International—formerly the American Society for Testing  and

                                                          Materials,

                                                 - ASME,

                                                 - SAE International,

                                                 - UNS,

                                                 - NACE—The Corrosion Society,

 

                                 • Carbon Steels, Cast Irons, and Low-Alloy Steels,

                                                 - Classifications of Carbon Steel,

                                                 - Strengthening Methods for Carbon Steels,

                                                 - Heat Treatment of Carbon Steels,

                                                 - Quenched and Tempered (Q&T) Steels,

                                                 - Carbon Equivalents and Weldability,

                                                 - Hard Spots,

                                                 - Cleanliness of Steel,

                                                 - Cast Irons,

 

                                 • Corrosion Resistant Alloys CRAs,

                                                 - Iron-Nickel Alloys,

                                                 - Stainless Steels,

                                                 - Nickel-Based Alloys,

                                                 - Cobalt-Based Alloys,

                                                 - Titanium Alloys,

                                                 - Copper Alloys,

                                                 - Aluminum Alloys,

                                                 - Additional Considerations with CRAs,

 

                                 • Polymers, Elastomers, and Composites,

 

          Analyze corrosion coupons, corrosion rings, corrosion probes,

              7. Corrosion Inspection, Monitoring, and Testing

                                 • Inspection,

                                                 - Visual Inspection (VI),

                                                 - Penetrant Testing (PT),

                                                 - Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT),

                                                 - Ultrasonic Inspection (UT),

                                                 - Radiography (RT),

                                                 - Eddy Current,

                                                 - Positive Material Identification (PMI),

                                                 - Thermography,

                                                 - Additional Remarks about Inspection,

 

                                 • Monitoring,

                                                 - Monitoring Probes,

                                                 - Mass-Loss Coupons and Probes,  

                                                 - Electrical Resistance (ER) Probes,

                                                 - Electrochemical Corrosion Rate Monitoring Techniques,

                                                 - Hydrogen Probes,

                                                 - Sand Monitoring,

                                                 - Fluid Analysis,

                                                 - Bacterial Growth Monitoring,

                                                 - Additional Comments on Monitoring,

 

                                 • Testing,

                                                 - Hydrostatic Testing,

                                                 - Laboratory and Field Trial Testing,

 

        Day 3

              8. Corrosion Control

                    THEORY OF CORROSION

                                 • Voltage Source

                                 • The Electrical Circuit

                                                 - Anode

                                                 - Cathode

                                                 - Electrolyte

                                                 - Electron Conductor

        

                  THE NATURE OF METALS

                  THE EFFECT OF METAL COMPOSITION

                  EFFECT OF WATER COMPOSITION

                                 • Conductivity of Water

                                 • pH of Water

                                 • Dissolved Gases

                                                 - Dissolved Oxygen

                                                 - Dissolved Carbon Dioxide

                                                 - Dissolved Hydrogen Sulfide

 

                                 • Organic Acids

                                 • Physical Variables

                                                 - Water Temperature

                                                 - System Pressure

                                                 - Water Velocity

 

             FORMS OF CORROSION

                                 • Galvanic Corrosion

                                                 - Preferential Weld Corrosion

          

                                 • Concentration Cells

                                                 - Crevice Corrosion

                                                 - Air-Water Interface

                                                 - Oxygen Tubercles

                                                 - Scales and Sludges

 

                                 • Erosion-Corrosion and Impingement

                                 • Cavitation

                                 • Hydrogen Damage

                                                 - Hydrogen Blistering

                                                 - Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)

                                                 - Sulfide Stress Cracking

 

                                 • Corrosion Fatigue

                                 • Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC)

                                 • Fretting Corrosion

                                 • Electrolytic Corrosion

                                 • Chloride Stress Cracking

                                 • Selective Leaching

                                                 - Dezincification

                                                 - Graphitization

 

               CORROSION CONTROL METHODS

                                 • Approaches to Corrosion Control

                                                 - Alter Material Composition

                                                 - Alter Electrolyte Composition

                                                 - Physical Alteration of the System

                                                 - Isolate the Metal from the Electrolyte

                                                 - Chemical Inhibitors

                                                 - Cathodic Protection

 

                                 • Method Selection

                                                 - Cost of Materials

                                                 - Labor Costs

                                                 - The Present Value of Money

 

            CORROSION INHIBITORS

                                 • Guidelines for Inhibitor Selection

                                                 - Inhibitor Solubility

                                                 - Dissolved Oxygen

                                                 - Incompatibility

                                                 - Inhibitor Detergency

                                                 - Inhibitor Cost

 

                                 • Inhibitor Application

        Day 4

              INTERNAL COATINGS AND LININGS FOR TUBULAR GOODS

                                 • Plastic Coatings

                                                 -Types of Plastics

                                                 - Coating Thickness

                                                 - Pipe Preparation

                                                 - Coating Inspection

                                                 - Tubing Couplings

                                                 - Pipe Connections

                                                 - Handling Plastic Coated Pipe

 

                                 • Cement Linings

                                                 - Advantages of Cement Linings

                                                 - Disadvantages of Cement Linings

                                                 - Handling Practices

 

                                 • Plastic Liners

                                                 - Grouted Liners

                                                 - Expanded Liners

                                                 - Bonded Liners

 

            INTERNAL VESSEL COATINGS AND CATHODIC PROTECTION

                                 • Coating of Water Storage Tanks and Other Vessels

                                                 - Field Application

                                                 - Coating Selection

 

                                 • Cathodic Protection

                                                 - Principle

                                                 - Current Sources

                                                                    o Galvanic Anodes

                                                                    o Impressed Current Systems

                                                 - Criteria for Cathodic Protection

 

            NON-METALLIC TUBULAR GOODS

                                 • Types

                                                 - Extruded Thermoplastic Pipe

                                                 - Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoset Pipe (FRP)

                                                 - Cement-Asbestos

 

                                 • Joining Methods

                                                 - Heat Welding

                                                 - Solvent Welding

                                                 - Threaded Joints

 

                                 • Advantages of Non-Metallic Piping

                                 • Disadvantages of Non-Metallic Piping

 

              DISSOLVED GAS REMOVAL

              DESIGN TO MINIMIZE CORROSION

                                 • Avoid Crevices

                                 • Avoid Low-Flow Areas

                                 • Avoid High-Flow Areas

                                 • Adequate Net Positive Suction Head

                                 • Materials Selection

                                 • Common Sense

 

            CORROSION MONITORING TECINIQUES

                                 • Coupons

                                                 - Types

                                                                    o Flat Plates

                                                                    o Rods

                                                                    o Discs

                                                                    o Spools

                                                 - Holders and Insulators

                                                                    o Coupon Retrieval Systems

                                                 - Coupon Handling

                                                 - Coupon Location and Orientation

                                                 - Coupon Evaluation

                                                                    o Calculation and Interpretation of Coupon Results

                                                                    o Evaluation of Pipe Spools

                                                 - Use of Coupons to Monitor Inhibitor Performance

 

        Day 5

                                 • Linear Polarization Meters - Instantaneous Corrosion Rates Theory

                                                 - Types of Instruments Available

                                                 - Taking Readings

                                                 - Pitting

                                                 - Probe Removal

 

                                 • Potentiodynamic Polarization Studies

                                 • Electrical Resistance Probes

                                 • Galvanic Probes

                                 • Hydrogen Permeation Rate Measurement

                                                 - Pressure Hydrogen Probe

                                                 - Electrochemical Hydrogen Probe

 

                                 • Dissolved Gas Analysis

                                 • Corrosion Product Analysis

                                 • Iron Counts

                                 • Inhibitor Concentrations

                                 • Bacteria Counts

                                 • Downhole Inspection

                                                 - Mechanical-Multifinger Caliper Tools (Tubing and Casing)

                                                 - Electromagnetic Induction (Casing)

                                                                    o DC Electromagnetic Induction

                                                                    o AC Electromagnetic Induction

                                                 - Ultrasonic Scanning (Tubing and Casing)

 

                                 • Pipeline Inspection Tools

                                                 - Pump-Through Inspection Tools

                                                                    o Magnetic-Flux-Leakage Pigs (MFL)

                                                                    o Ultrasonic Pigs (US)

                                                 - Wireline Tools

 

                                 • Inspection of Surface Facilities

                                                 - Ultrasonic Inspection

                                                 - Radiography

                                 • Visual Inspection

                                 • Failure Analysis

                                 • Equipment Records and Failure Reports

                                 • Final Philosophy,

 

              9. Corrosion of Oilfield Equipment

                                 • Drilling and Exploration,

                                                 - Wireline,

                                                 - Coiled Tubing,

 

                                 • Wells and Wellhead Equipment,

                                                 - History of Production,

                                                 - Downhole Corrosive Environments,

                                                 - Tubing, Casing, and Capillary Tubing,

                                                 - Inhibitors for Tubing and Casing in Production Wells,

                                                 - Internally Coated Tubing for Oilfield Wells,

                                                 - Material and Corrosion Concerns with Artificial Lift Systems,

                                                 - Wellheads, Christmas Trees, and Related Equipment,

 

                                 • Facilities and Surface Equipment,

                                                 - Piping,

                                                 - Storage Tanks,

                                                 - Heat Exchangers,

                                                 - Other Equipment,

                                                 - Bolting and Fasteners,

                                                 - Flares,

                                                 - Corrosion under Insulation,

 

                                 • Pipelines and Flowlines,

                                                 - Pipeline Problems and Failures,

                                                 - Forms of Corrosion Important in Pipelines and Flowlines,

                                                 - Repairs and Derating Due to Corrosion,

                                                 - Casings for Road and Railway Crossings,

                                                 - Pipeline Materials,

                                                 - Hydrotesting,

                                                 - External Corrosion,

                                                 - Internal Corrosion,

                                                 - Inspection and Condition Assessment,

 

 

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